Geneva Conference

Prohibiting foreign troops

Fundamental freedoms

U.S. Military Assistance 1950

CIA 1954

Demilitarised zone

Diem's government 1954

US servicemen killed 1959

1960 850 US Troops

1961 order 200,000 more

MACV 1962

Buddhists demonstrations

Australia deploys

New Zealand deploys

Hanoi evacuates

MACV announces use of defoliants Other Vietnam site links:
Bongson Bridge

BACK HOME PAGE

France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was declared after World War II, but the French continued to rule until 1954 when they were defeated by communist forces under HO Chi Minh, who took control of the north. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the south. Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven difficult as aging Communist Party leaders have only grudgingly initiated reforms necessary for a free market.

Final declaration, dated July 21, 1954, of the Geneva_Conference on the problem of restoring peace in Indochina, in which the representatives of Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam, France, Laos, the People's Republic of China, the State of Viet-Nam, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America took part.

1. The Conference takes note of the agreements ending hostilities in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam and organizing international control and the supervision of the execution of the provisions of these agreements.

2. The Conference expresses satisfaction at the ending of hostilities in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam. The Conference expresses its conviction that the execution of the provisions set out in the present declaration and in the agreements on the cessation of hostilities will permit Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam henceforth to play their part, in full independence and sovereignty, in the peaceful community of nations.

3. The Conference takes note of the declarations made by the Governments of Cambodia and of Laos of their intention to adopt measures permitting all citizens to take their place in the national community, in particular by participating in the next general elections, which, in conformity with the constitution of each of these countries, shall take place in the course of the year 1955, by secret ballot and in conditions of respect for fundamental freedoms.                                                                         BACK

4. The Conference takes note of the clauses in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Viet-Nam prohibiting the introduction into Viet Nam of foreign troops and military personnel as well as of all kinds of arms and munitions. The Conference also takes note of the declarations made by the Governments of Cambodia and Laos of their resolution not to request foreign aid, whether in war material, in personnel, or in instructors except for the purpose of effective defence of their territory and, in the case of Laos, to the extent defined by the agreements on the cessation of hostilities in Laos.

5. The Conference takes note of the clauses in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Viet-Nam to the effect that no military base at the disposition of a foreign state may be established in the regrouping zones of the two parties, the latter having the obligation to see that the zones allotted to them shall not constitute part of any military alliance and shall not be utilized for the resumption of hostilities or in the service of an aggressive policy. The Conference also takes note of the declarations of the Governments of Cambodia and Laos to the effect that they will not join in any agreement with other states if this agreement includes the obligation to participate in a military alliance not in conformity with the principles of the charter of the United Nations or, in the case of Laos, with the principles of the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Laos or, so long as their security is not threatened, the obligation to establish bases on Cambodian or Laotian territory for the military forces of foreign powers.

6. The Conference recognizes that the essential purpose of the agreement relating to Viet-Nam is to settle military questions with a view to ending hostilities and that the military demarcation line should not in any way be interpreted as constituting a political or territorial boundary. The Conference expresses its conviction that the execution of the provisions set out in the present declaration and in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities creates the necessary basis for the achievement in the near future of a political settlement in Viet-Nam.

7. The Conference declares that, so far as Viet-Nam is concerned, the settlement of political problems, effected on the basis of respect for the principles of independence, unity, and territorial integrity, shall permit the Vietnamese people to enjoy the fundamental_freedoms, guaranteed by democratic institutions established as a result of free general elections by secret ballot.                                                                                          

In order to insure that sufficient progress in the restoration of peace has been made, and that all the necessary conditions obtain for free expression of the national will, general elections shall be held in July 1956, under the supervision of an international commission composed of representatives of the member states of the International Supervisory Commission referred to in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities. Consultations will be held on this subject between the competent representative authorities of the two zones from April 20, 1955, onwards.

8. The provisions of the agreements on the cessation of hostilities intended to insure the protection of individuals and of property must be most strictly applied and must, in particular, allow every one in Viet-Nam to decide freely in which zone he wishes to live.

9. The competent representative authorities of the northern and southern zones of Viet-Nam, as well as the authorities of Laos and Cambodia, must not permit any individual or collective reprisals against persons who have collaborated in any way with one of the parties during the war, or against members of such persons' families.

10. The Conference takes note of the declaration of the French Government to the effect that it is ready to withdraw its troops from the territory of Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam, at the request of the governments concerned and within a period which shall be fixed by agreement between the parties except in the cases where, by agreement between the two parties, a certain number of French troops shall remain at specified points and for a specified time.

11. The Conference takes note of the declaration of the French Government to the effect that for the settlement of all the problems connected with the reestablishment and consolidation of peace in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam, the French Government will proceed from the principle of respect for the independence and sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam.

12. In their relations with Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam, each member of the Geneva Conference undertakes to respect the sovereignty, the independence, the unity, and the territorial integrity of the above-mentioned states, and to refrain from any interference in their internal affairs.         BACK

13. The members of the Conference agree to consult one another on any question, which may be referred to them by the International Supervisory Commission, in order to study such measures as may prove necessary to insure that the agreements on the cessation of hostilities in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam are respected.

The following is "a" version of events; it doesn’t mention dispossessing of land in the South owned by non-Christians, or the shipping of 1000’s of North Vietnamese Christians south, who were often vested ownership of land without the legal owners consent.

August 3, 1950
A U.S. Military_Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) of 35 men arrives in Saigon. By the end of the year, the U.S. is bearing half of the cost of France's war effort in Vietnam.

June, 1954
The CIA establishes a military mission in Saigon. Bao Dai selects
Ngo Dinh Diem as prime Minster of his government.

July 20, 1954
The Geneva Conference on Indochina declares a demilitarized_zone at the 17th parallel.

October 24, 1954
President Eisenhower pledges support to Diem's_government and military forces.
1955
The U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem organizes the Republic of Vietnam as an independent nation; declares himself president.

July 8, 1959
The first American combat deaths in Vietnam occur when Viet Cong attack Bien Hoa billets; two servicemen are killed.

1960
The National Liberation Front (NLF)--called the Viet Cong--is founded in South Vietnam.
                                                                                                                                                       

History: Established by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (“Manila Pact”), effective February 19, 1955, signed by Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States; and Protocol to the Main Treaty, signed by Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), Laos, and Cambodia, September 8, 1954. Protocol abrogated by Laos, July 9, 1962, and Cambodia, April 11, 1964. Pakistan gave one-year notice of withdrawal, November 8, 1972. SEATO Military Planning Office disbanded, January 31, 1974. France terminated financial contribution, June 30, 1974. Fall of Republic of Vietnam, April 30, 1975, resulted in de facto abrogation of Manila Pact. Philippines and Thailand announced intention to phase out SEATO, July 24, 1975. SEATO terminated, June 30, 1977.

VIETNAM 1957                                                                                                                                                       BACK

1- Elbridge Durbrow becomes Amb to Vietnam

1-3 ICC complain that both No and So are not complying with peace

5-5 Diem addresses Congress

6- Last French advisors leave South

10- Communists form first armed unit of former VM fighters

1959

1- North’s Central Executive Committee issues Resolution 15... realigning its strategy in South as mili, not political

4-4 Eisenhower makes first commitment to South at Gettysburg Coll.

4-12 Christian Herter replaces John Dulles as Secretary of State

5- North establishes Group 559 to expand HCM Trail

5-6 Diem issues Law 10/59 to persecute dissension

7-1 Lyman Lemnitzer becomes Army Chf of Staff, Maxwell Taylor leaves

7-8 Two US advisors killed by communists in Bien Hoa

12-1 Thomas Gates becomes Sec of Defence, Neil McElroy leaves

1960

- David Shoup assumes comm of USMC, Randolp McPate leaves

1-17 Communist begin fight in Delta by organizing uprisings

2-15 Communists form PLAF (PLAF)

4- North establishes draft, send troops south

5-30 US_Green_Berets_arrive to train ARVN

9- North calls for “broad UF” in war

9- LTG Lionel McGarr becomes Commander, Military Assistance Advisory Group-Vietnam (MAAG), LTG Sam Williams leaves

10- Geo Decker becomes Army Chief of Staff, Lyman Lemnitzer leaves to become Chairman, JCS, Nathan Twining leaves

10- Kennedy beats Nixon, becomes Pres

10-19 Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow tour Vietnam to review military and civilian aid needs                          BACK

11-12 Coup attempts against Diem takes over palace and Saigon area

11-12 Coup leaders say Diem to remain as titular Head of State; New govt to consist of General Le Van Ty as PM. LTC Dong, real leader of coup, announces other members of “Revolutionary Council” to form new govt are Gen’s. Xuan, Chieu, Minh, Don, and Kim. Other RC members are Col. Thi Dong, Major Loi, and Hoang Co Thuy (See ADIEMCP files)

12-31 Total American troop count at approx_850

1961

1- Kennedy appoints Dean Rusk as Sec. of State, Robert McNamara as Sec of Defense, and McGeorge Bundy as Nat Security Advisor

1-25 Kennedy announces support for “neutral Laos”

1-28 Kennedy tells Diem to reform govt and mili

1-29 National Front for Liberation (NLF) formed in North

3-19 NLF vow to ruin elections

3-27 Rusk meets with RVN SecState Thuan in Bangkok. RVN situation discussed

4- Frederick Nolting becomes Amb to Vietnam, Elbridge Durbrow leaves

5-9 Johnson visits south, recommends “Strong program of action”

5-10 GenConf on Laos begins

5-11 Kennedy sends an additional 400 Green Berets and 100 advisors

6- Curtis LeMay becomes Air Force Chf of Staff, Thomas White leaves

6-9 Diem formally requests US to train ARVN

7- Maxwell Taylor becomes military adviser to Kennedy

7- Kennedy orders military to recruit 200,000 more_men

8- George Anderson becomes Chief of Naval Operations, Arleigh Burke leaves

10-1 Diem asks for bilateral defence treaty with U.S.

10-11 US begins massive air supply of RVN troops; begins photo recon

10-18 Diem declares state of emergency

11- Maxwell Taylor visits South, advises Kennedy to increase troops; Kennedy sends more advisors for combat support only

12-31 Total American troop count at 3,200

1962

2- Green Berets expand training to Montagnards to fight VC

2-8 Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) formed, Paul Harkins, Gen assumes command                                    BACK

2-14 Kennedy permits American troops to fire back if shot at

2-16 NLF convenes its First Congress

2-27 Diem palace strafed by two disgruntled ARVN pilots

3- American gets involved with Strategic Hamlet campaign

5- Kennedy sends troops to Laos to put down PAVN/Pathet Lao

5- 5,000 Marines and 50 jets sent to Thailand

7-23 GenAccds on Laos agreed upon

10-1 Earl Wheeler becomes Army Chief of Staff, George Decker leaves; Maxwell Taylor becomes Chairman, JCS, Lyman Lemnitzer leaves

11-6 ACTIV formed to evaluate CAR-15 under combat conditions

12-29 Nhu states 39% of South now living in Strategic Hamlets

12-31 Total American troop count at 11,300

1963

1- NVA pulverize ARVN in Battle of AP Bac

2-24 American aid totals $400 million

5- Buddhists_demonstrations begin, self-burning

5-8 Hue riots, 9 civilians killed

7-7 Saigon police beat Buddhist demonstrators, 1400 arrested after Nhu raid pagodas

8- David McDonald becomes Chief of Naval Operations, George Anderson leaves

8-21 Diem forces raid Buddhists pagodas; Showplace StratHam Ben Tuong is raided by communist forces; Soviet combat troops begin leaving Cuba

8-22 Henry Cabot Lodge becomes Amb to Vietnam, Fred Nolting leaves                                                                     BACK

8-24 Lodge told to order Nhu to stop interfering in govt

9- Kennedy downgrades American military help to “Support role”

9-2 Kennedy complains Diem not doing enough to stem protests

10- CIA operative Lucien Conien gives Maj Gen’s Tran Van Don and Duong Van Minh; American nods coup attempt

11-1 Diem and brother, ND Nhu assassinated

11-22 Kennedy assassinated

12-31 Total American troop count at 16,300

1- General William C Westmoreland becomes Harkins deputy at MACV

1- Wallace Greene becomes USMC Comm, David Shoup leaves

1965

2- Air Force begins Operation Flaming Dart

2- John McConnell becomes Air Force Chief of Staff, Curtis LeMay leaves                                                             BACK

2-7 VC attack Americans at Pleiku, 8 Americans killed

2-8 US jets fly massive retaliation against north Johnson orders all US civilian families out of RVN

2-11 VC blow up GI barrack in Quinonh

2-12 160 planes attack northern cities

2-18 Military coup dumps General Khanh

2-25 Administration announces all-American flight crews will begin air ops

2-29 In fear of B-52 strikes Hanoi evacuates all_northern_cities

3-2 Operation “Rolling Thunder” air strikes on No begin

3-8 3rd Marine rgmt land in Da Nang, form 9th Expeditionary Bd.

3-30 VC bomb destroys US embassy, many killed

4- 1st Logistical Command set up near Saigon to control build-up

4- USAF begins Operation Steel Tiger in Laos

4-6 Johnson permits American to engage in ground offensive ops

4-7 Johnson offers $1 billion in aid to end war, Hanoi says no

4-8 North PM says no to Johnson's peace proposal

4-13 Students for a Democratic Society protest war in Wash, DC

5- Army 173rd Airborne Bd and Marine 4th Reg arrives

5- Navy Operation Market Time begins, enemy coastal traffic targeted

6- Australia_deploys 1st Battalion to III CTZ near Saigon

6- USAF begins Arc Light ops using B-52’s

6-8 Johnson authorizes joint ARVN offensive ops

6-14 General Nguyen Van Thieu selects 9th Preimier Air Vice Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky

7- Army forms USARV at Long Bihn

7- Army 1st Infantry and 101st Airborne Div’s arrive

7- New_Zealand_deploys in III CTZ

7-8 HC Lodge returns as Amb. Maxwell Taylor resigns

7-28 Johnson increase U.S. combat forces, doubles draft

8-18 Marines begin Op Starlight, kill over 700 VC/NVA

9- Army 18th Engineer Bd deploys

10-23 Outnumbered 10 to 1, Americans begin Ia Drang campaign against NVA; Major battles during campaign: Fight at LZ XRAY 11-14 TO 11-16; Fight at LZ ALBANY 11-17

7-20 USARV (DoA, Vietnam) formed

10- Republic of (South) Korea deploys in II CTZ

10-15 Massive US protest to war begins nationwide                                                                           BACK

10-23 1st Cav Div begin Op Silver Bayonet

11- USAF 3rd TFW deploys in Bien Hoa

11- USAF 12th TFW deploys in Cam Rahn Bay

12- Army 25th Infantry Div deploys

12- USAF begins Op Tiger Hound on border with Laos

12-2 UN head U Thant rebuffed by Hanoi for favoring American position

12-25 Johnson suspends Op Rolling Thunder

12-26 Xmas truce ends; VC stage attacks, Amers retaliate

12-31 Total American troop count at 185,300

1966

1- Marine 1st Div deploys

1-9 VC’s Hobo Forest (III CTZ) stronghold attacked by 8,000 allied troops

1-10 Congress informs Johnson some of his domestic programs will have to take cuts if he wants to continue war escalation

1-19 Op Van Buren begins, Johnson asks for $13 billion for war

1-24 Op’s Masher and White Wing begin in Binh Dinh prov

2- USAFs sends in 460th Tact Recon Wing

2-2 UNSC discusses war: Vote deferred on US request to “obtain peace in Vietnam by lone Jordan request to postpone vote; Hanoi casts deciding vote to bar UN intervention; 32 protestors arrested for snarling traffic in NY’s Times Square; 18th and 98th NVA Rgmts (8,000 men) are pursued by 20,000 US/ARVN troops in Binh Dinh Province; NVA General Giap issues statement US will inevitably lose despite their overwhelming technological and materiel advantage

2-4 Senate televises hearings on war

2-8 New GI Bills passes in House by 381-0 Johnson and Ky begins talks in Hawaii on reforms and winning war

3- USAF sends in 366th Tact Fighter Wing, 14th and 315th Air Commando Wings

3-1 Senate refuses to repeal Gulf of Tonkin resolution

3-10 Saigon Generals fire Nguyen Chanh Thi, commander of I CTZ, demonstrate- rations follow

3-16 Buddhist lead massive demonstration to restore a civilian to head govt

3-23 Massive strikes spread north to DaNang and Hue

4- Army 1st Signal Bd, 44th Medical Bd deploy

4- USAF 35th Tact Fighter Wing deploys

4- 5th Marine Reg deploys

4- Autrailia sends in more troops, established 1st Aus. Task Force

4- Op Arc Light extended to North

4-1 Walt Rostow becomes Nat Security Adv, McGeorge Bundy leaves

4-12 Guam-based B-52’s bomb North

5-10 Op’s Paul Revere and Than Phone begin in II CTZ                                                                                              BACK

5-15 Ky sends armed troops to DaNang

5-16 8,000 protest war in Washg’tn

5-23 Ky’s forces retake Danang, many dissidents murdered by ARVN

6- Marine 3rd Naval Bd deploys in Da Nang

6-2 Op’s El Paso, Hawthorne, and Dan begins in III CTZ

6-25 Johnson orders bombing of oil refineries near Hanoi and Haiphong

7-4 Op Macon begins, ends 10-27

7-7 Op’s Hastings and Deckhouse begins

8- Army 4th Infantry Div and 196th Light Infantry BD deploys

8- Philippines deploy Phil. Civic Action Group

8-1 Op Paul Revere II begins

8-3 Op Prairie begins

8-6 Op’s Colorado and Lien Ket 52 begins

8-26 Op Byrd begins, ends 1-20, 68

9- MACV announces use of defoliants

9- Army 11th Armored Cav, 18th MP Bd, and ROK 9th Inf Div deploys

9-14 Op Attleboro begins, ends 11-24

10- USAF 834th Air Div, 483rd Tact Airlift Wing deploy

10- Op Sea Dragon commenced by Navy

10-2 Op Irving commences, ends 10-24

10-18 Op Paul Revere IV begins, ends 12-30

10-24 Johnson and Ky meet with 5 other involved nations to end war

10-25 Op Thayer II begins

10-26 Johnson visits Vietnam, offers to with draw troops in 6 months if Hanoi “abandons war                                BACK

10-27 Large fire aboard AirCar Oriskany kills 43 GI’s

11- Army 199th Light Infantry Bd deploys

11-30 Op Fairfax begins

12- Army 9th Inf Div, USAF 31st Tact Fighter Wing deploy.

Clear breach of section 5 of the Geneva Conference \ follows:
5
. The Conference takes note of the clauses in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Viet-Nam to the effect that no military base at the disposition of a foreign state may be established in the regrouping zones of the two parties, the latter having the obligation to see that the zones allotted to them shall not constitute part of any military alliance and shall not be utilized for the resumption of hostilities or in the service of an aggressive policy. The Conference also takes note of the declarations of the Governments of Cambodia and Laos to the effect that they will not join in any agreement with other states if this agreement includes the obligation to participate in a military alliance not in conformity with the principles of the charter of the United Nations or, in the case of Laos, with the principles of the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Laos or, so long as their security is not threatened, the obligation to establish bases on Cambodian or Laotian territory for the military forces of foreign powers.

 

Vietnamese Lama about to give his life
to focus world attention on
stopping the war in Vietnam.

Jeff_Drake site:
How the US got involved in VN

Dennis Hodo web

Landscaper  Photo gallery

Pleiku Pals veterans web

Link to my Vietnam photos 

 

Vietnam Veterans Association of Australia

New Zealand Vietnam Veterans Association

UK Forces Reunited - Find your old mates for free

US Vet Friends Site

  BACK

American online Vietnam War Indexes & Records

Here are the Words of Truth Pacifying the Dangers of Weapons

Om mani padme hum

Great Loving Victorious One (Maitreya Buddha), Transcendental Sublime Compassionate Eye Looking One, Wrathful Victorious Hayagriva, Fully Accomplished Totally Pure (Jetsun) Tara and so forth,
Merely hearing your holy names eliminates all dangers,
Objects of refuge in the nature of compassion, please pay attention!

When the sentient beings of the time of quarrelling and five degenerations
By the explosion of the great ocean of evil karma and jealousy
Are tormented by the intensive suffering of fighting and quarrelling
Please dry this up by the power of transcendental wisdom and compassion.

By letting great rainfalls of the nectar of loving-kindness fall
On the migratory beings who are enflaming the conflagration of hatred-fire
Please grant blessing with the recognition of each other like father-mother
Then increase happiness and auspiciousness.

May the multitudes of the vicious evil spirits
Who enter the mental continuum and
Change it instantly to the mind of asura
From now on never run in this area (country/world).

I am requesting for even all the sentient beings who have died in the war
To abandon from that time onwards all the evil karma, cause and effect,
Then having entered and been born in the Blissful Field (Amitabha's Pure Land)
To lead all others to that Pure Land.

Please bless all those who are born and die (samsaric beings)
To have a long life, no sicknesses, to pacify all quarrelling and fighting,
Enjoy the ten virtues, have rainfall at the right times, always have good harvests
And for all the habitat and inhabitants to be auspicious and increase.

By the ultimate reality which is pure by nature,
By phenomena having ultimate reality cause and result are unbetrayable,
And by the compassion of the Guru, Mind-seal Deity and Rare Sublime Ones,
May these pure extensive prayers be completed.

 

 

 

BACK TOP

Vietnam Travel & Hotel URL: Description: Vietnam travel, Vietnam Hotel - Free rate check and travel map, useful tips, your seeking centre of discounting hotels, resorts, tours, accommodation wholesalers around Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia.

spider map page